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Relationship with multiple partners in university women: a comparative study in two institutions from the northwest of Mexico. Received for publication April 15th, Accepted for publication January 15th, Objective: To identify what variables influence having multiple sexual partners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with women of two higher education institutions from the northwest of Mexico, who answered a questionnaire measuring psychological variables underlying high-risk sexual behaviors.

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The data were analyzed with T-tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, and with a multiple linear regression. : A multiple linear regression analysis showed the following : for women from Hermosillo, Sonora, Hermosillo women wanting sex predictors of high-risk sexual behaviors were biological age, age of sexual debut, and one biological state - «I was physically excited»- with those variables explaining Conclusions: The underscore the need to de prevention programs directed to avoid HIV infection based on behavioral competencies training.

One of the keys to prevent sexually transmitted diseases -STDs- has to do with the reduction of the of sexual partners 1. The problem, however, is that adolescents and young adults of both sexes keep engaging in sexual relations with multiple partners in situations that place them at risk for contracting an STD, and in particular the human immunodeficiency virus HIV. The situations we are referring to are those in which a person, prior to engaging in a sexual relation, interacts with others in social situations with friends, ificant others, or casual acquaintances, frequently mediated by biological states associated with sexual deprivation, or with the consumption of substances such as drugs or alcohol; these are states that facilitate the practice of different high-risk sexual behaviors, such as engaging in sexual relations with multiple partners or not using a condom consistently and efficiently Each time that we are dealing with a problem that demands special attention from psychologists interested in the area of health, we must first have parsimonious models that allow us to systematically evaluate which variables facilitate or impede the practice of these or other high-risk sexual behaviors.

These models will allow us to fulfill two tasks: on the one hand, they help in offering plausible explanations in terms of why and under what circumstances people behave as they do; on the other hand, they allow us to translate our findings into viable intervention proposals aimed at changing high-risk behaviors into preventative ones 5.

Such is the case with the psychological model of disease prevention 6whose elements are separated into three phases Figure 1 : in the past phase are situations linked Hermosillo women wanting sex stress, to the history of competencies, and to motives. Situations linked to stress correspond with what is known in the literature as personality 7defined as consistent modes of interacting in situations in which there are no prescribed criteria as to how to behave; one example is the situation known as risk-taking tendencies, in which a person confronted with two situations or two circumstances within a situation in which there is a certain probability of obtaining immediate positive consequences sexual pleasure or positive consequences in the long term avoiding an STD diagnosisopts for the former.

Past competencies are identified with the knowledge and skills acquired by people when they interact in situations in which there are certain criteria to be met; their role is to facilitate or impede the instrumental exercise of certain behaviors; they include, among other things, knowing what HIV is, what AIDS is, how to prevent and HIV infection, knowing that condoms prevent HIV infection and having used it correctly and effectively when engaged in sexual relations with one or more persons, etc.

Current competencies are conceived as the practical manifestation of past competencies in the form of a variety of behaviors that allow a person to adjust to different criteria efficiently; they imply the knowing what things are and how to do them.

Dispositional biological events have to do with the biological conditions that are present prior to an interaction: what the person ate, how sleepy they are, how fatigued, whether they are sick, and whether they are in an altered state due to the presence of medication or substances such as alcohol or drugs, mainly.

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These are conditions that can also facilitate or impede the instrumental exercise of high-risk or preventative behaviors. In the particular case of high-risk sexual behaviors, two conditions that especially influence their practice have to do with the use of substances such as alcohol or drugs.

Finally, high-risk behaviors can be of two kinds. Of interest here are the former because they constitute the immediate reference points from which the potential risk that a person will be diagnosed with an HIV infection is assessed; we are referring to, among others, starting an active sexual life at an early age, having sexual relations with multiple partners and not using a condom consistently and effectively.

Starting from the elements of the above mentioned psychological model as a framework the present cross-sectional study was conducted, with the object of identifying predictors of having sexual relations with multiple partners in two groups of women from two higher-learning institutions in the northwest of Mexico. Participant selection was conducted with probabilistic sampling, multi-stage and stratified9; to that end, the total population of students was stratified by area and year of study, as well as by time of class morning vs.

Inclusion criteria were:. The mean age of the sample was Instrument and variables. To measure the variables of interest and the Hermosillo women wanting sex of engaging in sexual relations with multiple partners we used an instrument that was deed and validated in Mexico 10consisting of 44 questions that included socio-demographic information, motives, biological states and social situations that underlie different high-risk behaviors: age of first sexual relation with penetration, condom use during the first sexual encounter, condom use across an active sexual life, condom use with casual acquaintances, as well as sexual relations with multiple partners and with casual acquaintances.

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For the purposes of the present study we examined motives, biological states and social situations that underlie having sexual relations with multiple partners. Having relations with multiple partners was considered the independent variable. For the purposes of analysis, this variable was defined with an ordinal scale and a Likert-type format with three possible answers: one just one partnertwo between 2 and 4 partners and three 5 or more partners. Dependent variables were biological age age at the time the study was conductedage of first sexual relation, motives, biological states and social situations that either increased or decreased the likelihood of the above mentioned behavior; the last three variables were measured on an ordinal scale, as described below.

One example of a question measuring motives was: of the following motives listed below, could you tell us how important each of them was in determining whether you engaged in a sexual relation with different partners? One example of a question measuring biological states was: of the biological states listed below, could you tell us how much each of them influenced your decision to engage in sexual relations Hermosillo women wanting sex multiple partners?

Finally, an example of a question measuring social situations is: of the social situations listed below, could you tell us how much each facilitated your decision to engage in sexual relations with different partners?

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Following approval by the committee the he of each of the chosen majors from both institutions were approached, the goals of the study were explained to them, and their approval for the application of the instrument was sought. Once approval was obtained, the principal investigators and their collaborators went to the selected classrooms and requested the voluntary participation of the students, making sure they knew that their answers would be anonymous and confidential. Those students who agreed to participate were then given an informed consent form to read and ; the time of administration of the instrument ranged from 25 to 50 minutes.

Statistical analysis. Data were processed with SPSS for windows, version In a first phase we used an independent samples T test to determine whether there were differences in biological age and age of first sexual encounter between the students from both institutions. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine whether there were differences in having sexual relations with multiple partners between the two institutions, because this test is recommended when analyzing a nominal two values and an ordinal variable Finally, a multiple linear regression analysis backward method was used to identify predictors of the above mentioned behavior; this analysis was carried out twice: firstly the set of predictors was included directly, and lastly with institution as a criterion variable; to evaluate goodness of fit of the data Hermosillo women wanting sex the model the coefficient of determination adjusted R2 was used, which is an estimate of how well a model fits data from a studied population.

To detect multicollinearity between the dependent and independent variables the tolerance index was used, the values of which range from 0 to 1, with values less than one indicating a linear relation between the variables, whereas values higher than 1 indicate the absence of a relationship. Similarly, the Durbin-Watson statistic was used with the purpose of assessing the level of correlation of the residuals and the diagrams for particular cases which meet selection criteria corresponding to atypical values that are above n standard deviations ; the ificance of the statistic is determined by its value: if it is near 2, then the are not correlated, if it is near 4 they are negatively correlated, and finally, if it is near 0 they are positively correlated Age of first sexual relations and differences between students by institution.

At the time the study was conducted, the mean age of initiating an active sexual life was When comparing participants from both institutions it was found that students from CESUES initiated their sex life at a mean age of In regard to having sexual relations with multiple partners, the were as follows: in general, As a function of institution, it was found that students from CESUES had lower percentages of sexual relations in the three Hermosillo women wanting sex options: With respect to the multiple linear regression analysis backward methodthe overall were as follows Table 2 : for the total sample, the predictors of having multiple sexual partners were biological age, age of first sexual relations and two biological states I was excited and I had consumed alcohol.

In the case of participants from UACJ Table 4the predictors were age of first sexual relations and two types of biological states I was excited and I had consumed alcohol. In fact, even when in general terms the participants from this sample initiated their active sexual life at a mean age of This is especially concerning, if both the social circumstances in which students tend to engage in sexual relations with multiple partners, and the influence of the biological states in which they arrive prior to engaging in sexual relations with penetration, are considered.

Indeed, it was two types of biological states that, together with biological age and age of first sexual relations, were shown to have a decisive influence in engaging in the above mentioned behavior. Whereas for the participants from CESUES the biological state «I was excited» was a determining factor, for participants from UACJ the determining factors were that same biological state and «I was under the influence of alcohol».

Now then, how should we interpret these findings?

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While it is true that in various investigations it has been shown that initiating an active sexual life at an early age facilitates the instrumental exercise of different high-risk behaviorsit must be understood that age of initiation is a variable that by itself does not explain why and under what circumstances people engage or not in high-risk sexual behaviors. In that sense, the role that other variables play should be taken intosuch as the ones considered in the psychological model of prevention used here, for example in terms of motives, social circumstances and biological states.

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If in a particular social situation a person wishes to engage in sexual relations with multiple partners because there are implicit positive consequences —e. In the case of women from Hermosillo, Sonora, this was evident in the influence of the biological state «I was excited». To the extent that women learn to asso-ciate the practice of the behavior in question with positive consequences such as the ones mentioned above, what is occurring is that a propensity to behave in a given way is reinforced in different social situations, with the known risk involved in engaging in sexual relations with partners of whom the sexual history is unknown, which may lead to a difficulty in adopting the relevant preventative measures e.

This means that, in contrast with women from Hermosillo, Sonora, women from this sample respond to social situations strictly in circumstantial terms, or in function of the specific biological conditions produced, on the one hand, by a biological state of sexual deprivation, and on the other, by the consumption of alcohol. These are conditions that tend to facilitate the practice of different high-risk sexual beha-viors initiating an active sex life at an early age, having sexual relations with multiple partners and not using a condom consistently and effectively, among othersthereby increasing the probability of an STD, including HIV infection.

In other words, if in a social situation women from the second sample arrive in a state of sexual deprivation or are under the influence of alcohol, the probability that they will become involved with multiple partners will be higher, if in such situation the opportunity to engage in sexual relations presents itself because there is a partner present that is expecting to be sexually satisfied in the sense of obtaining immediate positive consequencesHermosillo women wanting sex because the use of alcohol «uninhibits» them sexually.

Whatever is the biological state, there is no doubt that both increase the probability of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors, limiting a later competent performance, that is, the performance of efficient preventative sexual behaviors. In summary, the present findings Hermosillo women wanting sex that women from both samples keep engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors that can lead to an STD, and in particular to HIV infection.

Since we are dealing with college students, and based on the education level and the promotion of ad campaigns oriented to the prevention of STDs that have been implemented in our country, it would be expected that these samples would engage in preventative sexual behaviors. Therefore, it appears that neither education level nor the above mentioned ad campaigns are determining factors in the practice of these preventative behaviors, but that other variables both past and present, such as the ones studied here, may play a determining role.

From a theoretical point of view and based on the psychological model of prevention that guided the current study, biological states constitute events that modulate or regulate in a negative fashion the exercise of the behavioral competencies and, therefore, the consistent and efficient practice of preventative sexual behaviors. This is a key aspect in understanding why and under what circumstances people engage in high-risk behaviors, thereby increasing the risk of HIV infection, especially if when becoming involved with multiple partners and under the influence of those biological states the consistent and efficient use of a condom becomes less likely.

There are two limitations of the current study. On the other hand, future studies should include, along with the variables considered in the current study, other variables that make up the model, such as situations linked with stress, particularly those that have to do with a tendency to high-risk behaviors and decision making, mainly.

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