Women want sex Burdine

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Pregnant women have been curious about the sex of their unborn .

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The advent of ultrasound, its application into medicine, and the revolutionary changes in its resolution and function has led to the ability to as a sex to these unborn children, thereby allaying the anxiety of these women but with consequent emergent ethical, moral, psycho-social, and medico-legal issues. The objectives were to determine the accuracy of sonographic prenatal sex determination, perform binary classification test, and the impact it has, including mis-diagnosis. A prospective prenatal sonographic sex determination study on consecutive consenting pregnant women aged years in a private hospital in Benin between August and October Questionnaires were administered to these women before and after the scan and the women were told the sex of the fetuses and their feelings on the determined sex recorded.

The sex at birth was confirmed and compared to the scan determined gender by their case note and telephone.

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Relevant discussions during the scan and later on were recorded on the questionnaires. The statistical package used was SPSS version 17 and binary classification tests were performed. The sensitivity Two males were misdiagnosed as females. Most of the women were happy even when the sex differed from that which they desired. Prenatal sonographic sex determination has a high sensitivity index. Consequently we advocate its use prior to more invasive sex tests. Ultrasound is used in most parts of the world for prenatal sex determination. Indication for prenatal sex determination can be medical or nonmedical.

The medical indication for its use include in families at risk of x-linked disorders, testicular feminization syndrome, pseudo-hermaphroditism, genital anomalies, ambiguous genitalia, and determination of zygosity in multiple pregnancy. In the early publications on sonographic prenatal gender asment male sex was identified by the presence of the penis and scrotum while females were by the absence of both scrotum and penis.

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Visualization of the internal pelvic structures of the fetus such as the uterus and ovaries also assists in asing appropriate sex to the fetus. Unfortunately first trimester ultrasound sex determination has ificant false negative rate. Improvement in the sensitivity value increases with high proficiency and experience as well as high-quality machine. Incorrectly determined sex can have some psychological effects on the family. Thus we undertook this study to determine the prenatal sonographic accuracy and sensitivity pattern in our environment.

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This is a prospective study conducted at a private hospital in Benin from August to Oct Approval for the study was sought and granted from the radiology department and the management which acts as the ethical board of the private institution where the study was conducted.

In the study consecutive consenting pregnant women with pregnancies in the second or third trimester that were referred for obstetric ultrasound had the procedure explained to them and questionnaires administered after ing the informed consent section. Sonographic prenatal sex determination was conducted in these consenting women and the determined sex communicated to them. They were then asked how they felt about the determined sex and their feelings recorded.

Data such as phone s, gestational age at scan time, estimated date of delivery, case noteand other relevant data were entered into the questionnaires. Their case notes were retrieved about 3 weeks after the expected date of delivery and the sex of the baby at birth entered into their questionnaires. The patients were also contacted by telephone and the sex at birth confirmed with relevant comments entered into the questionnaires. The sex at birth was then compared with the prenatal sonographic determined sex.

The scan was performed by one of the researchers. Identification of the vulva, clitoris, Women want sex Burdine labia was used to as female sex to the fetus [ Figure 1 ]. For male fetuses visualization of the scrotum, testicles, and penile shaft was utilized [ Figure 2 ]. After the scan the women were asked how they felt after knowing the fetal sex. Their responses were then entered into the questionnaires. Relevant oral communications were also recorded in the questionnaires as other findings.

The data were analyzed using SPSS version Binary classification test such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were performed for either fetal sex and the tabulated. A chi-square test was also done with ificant value set at 0. Two hundred and five pregnant women participated in this study with the youngest aged 20 years while the oldest 40 years.

The average age of the participants was The mean time at which the scans were conducted was at The earliest scan was at 17 weeks of gestation while the latest was at 40 weeks with the range spanning 23 weeks [ Figure 3 ]. Histogram showing the frequencies and gestational ages at which obstetric scans were done. All the females were accurately detected sonographically as females, but 2 males were mistakenly reported as females [ Table 1 ].

These two males were scanned at 33 and 36 weeks of gestation. On the other hand if sonographically a female sex is detected, then the probability is Furthermore, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for either Women want sex Burdine are high [ Table 2 ].

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Cross-tabulation of the sex as detected during obstetric scans against the actual sex at birth. Binary classification tests for ultrasonic detection of male and females sexes respectively. After conducting the scans and the clients told what sex of baby they expect, 2 0.

Nine 3. In the past women Women want sex Burdine made guesses of the sex of their unborn child which was confirmed only at parturition. The advent of ultrasound has allowed conduction of sex determination in utero with consequent anxiety alleviation associated with curiosity over the fetal sex experienced in the past. For instance a medicolegal case may arise if a female fetus is mistakenly identified as a male in a family with history of x-linked disorder and the pregnancy is lost Post-amniocentesis.

This study demonstrates that ultrasonography is an effective way of identifying fetal gender in the second and third trimester. Out of the pregnant women in this study only 2 had the sex of their babies at birth different from what was determined by ultrasonography.

The women whose children's sex were wrongly identified did not fail to vent their anger citing that they had to go through shopping for new set of clothing for the babies leading to wastage of scarce resources and psychological shock at seeing the opposite sex to that expected at parturition.

In similar situations hospitals had been sued for false. However coiled umbilical cord can be easily differentiated from scrotal sac if the gain setting is optimized or reduced if the gain was initially high. Application of Doppler on the suspected umbilical cord may show color flow while no ificant flow will be seen if it is the scrotum. In a study carried by Efrat et al. Efrat et al. Other studies also support the observation that the sensitivity of female sex determination is higher than male and that gender determination sensitivity increases with advancing fetal age.

In the ability to as a male gender we got a reasonably high sensitivity of All the female fetuses were accurately ased as females but the ability to rule out a fetus Women want sex Burdine not being a female was We achieved an accuracy of Wrong gender asment may occur if the pelvic floor muscles or the anal orifice is mistaken for female genitalia.

Sometimes it may be difficult or impossible to visualize the genitalia to as a sex to the fetus. Factors that may hinder easy visualization of the genitalia include breech presentation, closely apposed fetal thighs resulting in covering of the genitalia, close proximity of the fetal peritoneum to the placenta or myometrial wall, oligohydramnios, maternal obesity, technical problem with the machine or probe causing poor image quality.

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Revealing fetal sex during obstetric scans raises numerous psycho-social, ethical, and legal dilemmas. Consequently some sonologists do not perform ultrasound sex determination. Bashour et al. A ificant proportion Only 3. However studies have shown that 3D ultrasound does not confer increased accuracy at gender asment over 2D. The sensitivity and binary classification test values are high. Hence we recommend the use of prenatal sonographic sex determination when requested and communication of the report to the women provided it is done by a competent trained health personnel.

Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Women want sex Burdine

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The accuracy of 2D ultrasound prenatal sex determination