Hispanic lesbian 4

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Kim originated the study, conducted data analyses, synthesized the conceptualization and analyses, and wrote the initial draft of the article. Fredriksen-Goldsen assisted with conceptualizing the study, interpreting the of data analyses, and writing the article. We investigated whether elevated risks of health disparities exist in Hispanic lesbians and bisexual women aged 18 years and older compared with non-Hispanic White lesbians and bisexual women and Hispanic heterosexual women.

We analyzed population-based data Hispanic lesbian 4 the Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System — using adjusted logistic regressions. Hispanic lesbians and bisexual women, compared with Hispanic heterosexual women, were at elevated risk for disparities in smoking, asthma, and disability.

Hispanic bisexual women also showed higher odds of arthritis, acute drinking, poor general health, and frequent mental distress compared with Hispanic heterosexual women. In addition, Hispanic bisexual women were more likely to report frequent mental distress than were non-Hispanic White bisexual women. Hispanic lesbians were more likely to report asthma than were non-Hispanic White lesbians.

The elevated risk of health disparities in Hispanic lesbians and bisexual women are primarily associated with sexual orientation. Yet, the elevated prevalence of mental distress for Hispanic bisexual women and asthma for Hispanic lesbians appears to result from the cumulative risk of doubly disadvantaged statuses.

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Efforts are needed to address unique health concerns of diverse lesbians and bisexual women. Equity in health and health care is of critical societal importance given its ethical and social justice implications. Despite tremendous advancements in medicine and improved health for many Americans, historically disadvantaged and underserved communities continue to bear higher levels of illness, disability, and premature death.

The National Institutes of Health affirms a commitment to reducing and eliminating health disparities affecting disadvantaged populations across the country. Health disparities among the Hispanic population, for example, have been well documented. The evidence of health disparities affecting sexual minority women is also growing. According to studies based on probability samples, sexual minority women, compared with heterosexual women, report experiencing higher levels of poor physical and general health, 9—11 mental distress, 9,11—13 and higher prevalence rates of asthma 10,11,13 and disability.

Without better understanding the potential interplay between these marginalized statuses, it remains difficult, if not impossible, to develop culturally sensitive health services that are responsive to the needs of the Hispanic sexual minority population. The possibility of cumulative risks resulting from multiple disadvantaged statuses affecting health among Hispanic sexual minorities has been raised in the literature. It has been suggested that Hispanic sexual minorities experience heightened risks of poor physical and mental health compared with non-Hispanic White sexual minorities and Hispanic heterosexuals.

A few studies have assessed health-related concerns among Hispanic sexual minority women. One study found that Hispanic sexual minority women had increased psychiatric morbidity risk compared with Hispanic heterosexual women. Yet, to identify the potentially cumulative impact of multiple disadvantaged statuses on health disparities, the prevalence of health indicators for Hispanic sexual minority women must be compared with Hispanic heterosexual women as well as non-Hispanic White lesbians and bisexual women within the same sample.

Furthermore, because the patterns and extents of health disparities may be dissimilar between lesbians and bisexual women, the cumulative effects should be tested separately among lesbians and bisexual women. Disaggregating groups of sexual minorities is an important stage in developing tailored interventions to respond to the unique health-related needs of these subgroups.

In this study, we compared the unadjusted and adjusted prevalence of health disparities including health status, health risk behaviors, health care access, and health outcomes by Hispanic lesbians the reference groupnon-Hispanic White lesbians, and Hispanic heterosexual women as well as by Hispanic bisexual women the reference groupnon-Hispanic White bisexual women, and Hispanic heterosexual women.

We hypothesized that Hispanic lesbians and bisexual women would experience higher risks of health disparities than would non-Hispanic White lesbians and bisexual women as well as Hispanic heterosexual women. The BRFSS was deed to monitor health conditions and health behaviors annually among noninstitutionalized adults aged 18 years and older. Weighted estimates demonstrated that among Hispanic women, 1. Sexual orientation was measured by respondents selecting from the following : 1 heterosexual or straight; 2 homosexual, gay, or lesbian; 3 bisexual; or 4 other. We measured health care access in 3 ways.

First, the respondents were asked whether they had any health insurance coverage, including health insurance, prepaid plans such as health maintenance organizations, and government plans such as Medicare. Second, financial barriers to health services were measured by asking Hispanic lesbian 4 respondents had experienced any financial barrier to seeing a doctor in the past 12 months. Last, usual source of primary care was measured by asking respondents whether they had a personal doctor or health care provider.

We dichotomized the self-rating of general health into 2 excellent, very good, or good vs fair or poor. Respondents were Hispanic lesbian 4 how many days their mental and physical health was not good in the past 30 days, and each variable was dichotomized with the cut-off of 14 or more days as consistently Hispanic lesbian 4 in other health research studies.

We used Stata version First, we examined unadjusted prevalence of sociodemographic characteristics and health-related indicators for Hispanic lesbians, non-Hispanic White lesbians, and Hispanic heterosexual women. We also tested multiple adjusted logistic regression models to examine differences in each health indicator between the 3 groups while controlling for age, education, and income.

We treated Hispanic lesbians as the reference group in each model. Second, we applied the same analytic processes in comparisons between Hispanic bisexual women, non-Hispanic White bisexual women, and Hispanic heterosexual women. We tested for multicollinearity and detected no problems with the variables tested in these analyses.

Table 1 illustrates the sociodemographic characteristics of Hispanic and non-Hispanic White sexual minority women and Hispanic heterosexual women. The sociodemographic characteristics of Hispanic lesbians were similar to those of non-Hispanic White lesbians but ificantly different from those of Hispanic heterosexual women except for age and unemployment rate.

Hispanic lesbians were better educated, had higher household incomes, were less likely to be married or partnered, and had a smaller household size than did Hispanic heterosexual women. Hispanic bisexual women were younger than were non-Hispanic White bisexual women, but the other sociodemographic characteristics were similar for both groups.

Hispanic bisexual women were younger, were less likely to be married or partnered, and reported lower household size than did Hispanic heterosexual women. The levels of educational achievement, income, and unemployment for Hispanic bisexual women were not statistically different from those of Hispanic heterosexual women. Estimates were weighted.

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The of adjusted analyses are illustrated in Table 2. The prevalence rates of obesity and arthritis for Hispanic lesbians were similar to those for both Hispanic lesbian 4 White lesbians and Hispanic heterosexual women. Adjusted logistic regression analyses controlled for age, income, and education and included a dummy variable indicating the 3 stratified groups with coding Hispanic lesbians as the reference group; estimates were weighted.

We did not find any differences in the prevalence rates of current smoking and lack of exercise between Hispanic lesbians and non-Hispanic White lesbians. On the other hand, Hispanic Hispanic lesbian 4 reported higher prevalence rate of smoking and lower rate of lack of exercise than did Hispanic heterosexual women.

The prevalence rate of acute drinking for Hispanic lesbians was not different from those for non-Hispanic White lesbians and Hispanic heterosexual women. The prevalence rates of health insurance coverage and usual source of primary care were similar between Hispanic lesbians and non-Hispanic White lesbians. The prevalence rates of these health care access indicators for Hispanic lesbians were higher than those for Hispanic heterosexual women, but when age, education, and income were ed for, the differences did not remain ificant.

The prevalence rate of financial barriers to health care for Hispanic lesbians was similar to those for non-Hispanic White lesbians and Hispanic heterosexual women. The prevalence rates of poor general health, mental distress, and poor physical health for Hispanic lesbians were also similar to those for non-Hispanic White lesbians and Hispanic heterosexual women. Table 3 demonstrates the weighted prevalence estimates of health conditions, health behaviors, health care access, and health outcomes and the of adjusted logistic regression analyses for Hispanic bisexual women, non-Hispanic White bisexual women, and Hispanic heterosexual women.

The prevalence rate of obesity for Hispanic bisexual women was similar to those for non-Hispanic White bisexual women and Hispanic heterosexual women. Adjusted logistic regression analyses controlled for age, income, and education and included a dummy variable indicating the 3 stratified groups with coding Hispanic bisexual women as the reference group; estimates were weighted. The prevalence rate of lack of exercise for Hispanic bisexual women was not ificantly different from those for non-Hispanic White bisexual women and Hispanic heterosexual women. Hispanic bisexual women had levels of health care access similar to non-Hispanic White bisexual women and Hispanic heterosexual women.

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Hispanic and non-Hispanic White bisexual women showed a similar level of health insurance coverage. The prevalence of health insurance coverage for Hispanic bisexual women was higher than that for Hispanic heterosexual women, but when we ed for age, education, and income, the difference was not statistically ificant. The prevalence rates of financial barriers to health care and usual source of primary care for Hispanic bisexual women were also similar to those for non-Hispanic White bisexual women and Hispanic heterosexual women. Hispanic bisexual women show disparities in general health and mental distress.

The prevalence rate of frequent poor physical health for Hispanic bisexual women was similar to those for non-Hispanic White bisexual women and Hispanic heterosexual women. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to use a population-based sample to assess health disparities among Hispanic lesbians and bisexual women by comparing them Hispanic lesbian 4 both non-Hispanic White sexual minority women and Hispanic heterosexual women. Both Hispanic lesbians and bisexual women had increased risks of smoking, lifetime asthma, and disability compared with Hispanic heterosexual women.

In addition, Hispanic bisexual women showed higher odds of reporting arthritis, acute drinking, frequent mental distress, and poor general health than did Hispanic heterosexual women. Our findings suggest Hispanic lesbian 4 the hypothesized cumulative risks on health of Hispanic sexual minority women are supported in 2 important areas. First, Hispanic lesbians reported a ificantly higher likelihood of having ever had asthma than did both Hispanic heterosexual women and non-Hispanic White lesbians.

It is known that obesity, smoking, and mental distress may be related to high asthma rates among sexual minority women, 44 and obesity has been found to be one of the major risk factors of asthma regardless of smoking status. To date, no existing studies have examined the prevalence of lifetime asthma specifically in Hispanic lesbians.

Future population-based studies need to examine lifetime asthma prevalence among Hispanic lesbians and identify factors that increase their risk. Second, among Hispanic bisexual women, cumulative risk related to multiple marginalized statuses appears to lead to greater mental distress. Although studies have suggested that Hispanic sexual minority women have cumulative elevated psychiatric morbidity risk, 27,28 these studies did not detect distinctive disparity patterns between lesbians and bisexual women.

This is the first study, to our knowledge, to reveal that Hispanic bisexual women are more likely to experience frequent mental distress than are both Hispanic lesbian 4 White bisexual women and Hispanic heterosexual women. One important predictor of mental health is the extent of social support among sexual minorities. Social support obtained through relationships and group connectedness can ease the negative impact of prejudice and discrimination 47 and provide opportunities for building better coping capacities to prevent mental distress.

More research is needed to test whether patterns of social support received and the degree of internalized stigma among Hispanic bisexual women are different than those among Hispanic lesbians and non-Hispanic White sexual minority women and to what extent such risk and protective factors explain cumulative risk affecting mental health among Hispanic bisexual women.

Despite the important findings of the cumulative risks of lifetime asthma among Hispanic lesbians and mental distress among Hispanic bisexual women, we did not observe cumulative risks in most other health indicators. Nevertheless, an elevated risk of health disparities by sexual orientation exists within Hispanic women communities. These findings support the increasing evidence that sexual orientation is a social indicator of health disparities among women. We observed 2 unexpected findings, however. studies consistently report that lesbians in general have a higher likelihood of obesity than do heterosexual women.

Obesity is a known risk factor among Hispanic women. Hispanic women, regardless of their sexual orientation, seem to be at elevated risk for obesity. Another important indicator of health disparities experienced by sexual minority women in general is lack of health insurance coverage. This finding may reflect the fact that a high percentage of Hispanics in the United States are lacking health insurance coverage and that the sociodemographic status of Hispanics s for a ificant part of the disparity.

In fact, once we controlled for age, education, and income, the difference did not remain ificant.

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This study is an important first step in examining patterns of cumulative risks of health disparities among Hispanic lesbians and bisexual women. The of this study, however, should be considered in the context of several important limitations. The operationalization and defined of sexual orientation as measured in the BRFSS may be culturally constrained and may not be relevant in Hispanic culture.

Second, although one of the strengths of this study was the analysis of multiyear population-based data, the small of Hispanic lesbians and bisexual women and the sample size discrepancies between comparison groups may have reduced the power of the logistic regression analyses. Combining lesbians and bisexual women would increase the sample size of the group, but it would overlook unique health-related needs of lesbians and bisexual women. In the future, oversampling in a population-based study to increase the of Hispanic lesbians and bisexual women would likely help to increase sample size to examine in depth the cumulative impact of multiple marginalized statuses and health disparities among Hispanic lesbians and bisexual women.

Despite these potential limitations, this population-based study sheds important new light on the unique health risks of Hispanic lesbians and bisexual women. Most importantly, this study provides insights into the differences that exist in the cumulative risk of health disparities between Hispanic lesbians and Hispanic bisexual women. The findings reveal important areas in Hispanic lesbian 4 of further research to develop culturally appropriate and sensitive health services deed to meet the needs of Hispanic sexual minority women.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Am J Public Health. Published online January. Fredriksen-GoldsenPhD. Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer.

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Gay & Lesbian Themes in Hispanic Literatures & Cultures